Tests to measure testosterone levels are primarily performed as blood-based sample collection. (Goldman et al., 2017) Patients reported a definite preference for saliva collection when choosing between oral, urine, and blood testing. Testing saliva is less invasive, and research shows that participation in testing is increased for this option. (Dhima et al., 2013)


Goldman, A. L., Bhasin, S., Wu, F. C. W., Krishna, M., Matsumoto, A. M., & Jasuja, R. (2017). A Reappraisal of Testosterone’s Binding in Circulation: Physiological and Clinical Implications. Endocrine reviews38(4), 302–324. https://doi.org/10.1210/er.2017-00025

Dhima, M., Salinas, T. J., Wermers, R. A., Weaver, A. L., & Koka, S. (2013). Preference changes of adult outpatients for giving saliva, urine, and blood for clinical testing after actual sample collection. Journal of prosthodontic research57(1), 51–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpor.2012.09.004